What Are The Types Of Depression?

If you’re feeling down, have low moods, or experience changes in weight, eating or sleeping habits for an extended period of time, then you may be suffering from one or more kinds of depression. A mood disorder like depression is common, but what kind specifically are you likely experiencing?

What Is Depression?

Depression is different for everyone, and though it normally begins in adulthood, more and more teenagers and children are being affected by it. “Depression is a constant feeling of sadness and loss of interest, which stops you from doing your normal activities. Different types of depression exist, with symptoms ranging from relatively minor to severe. Generally, depression does not result from a single event, but from a mix of events and factors.” Fortunately, treatment is available.

Know The Cause

There’s more than one cause of depression, just like other mental and physical ailments. The condition results from social, psychological, and biological factors. Adverse life events (unemployment, bereavement, or psychological trauma) are other triggers. The condition may lead to more stress and dysfunction, worsening your life and the depression itself.

Types Of Depression

The four most common types of depression are bipolar disorder, major depression, dysthymia, and seasonal affective disorder.

  • Major depression. The classic depression type, major depression is a state where a dark mood is all-consuming and one loses interest in activities, even ones that are usually pleasurable.  Symptoms of this type of depression include trouble sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication.”
  • Persistent depressive disorder. Also called “dysthymia,” this kind of depression means low mood which has persisted for at least two years but probably won’t achieve the strength of major depression. Many people suffering from this depression type can function daily, but feel joyless or low most of the time. Other symptoms can include sleep and appetite changes, low energy, poor self-esteem, or hopelessness.
  • Bipolar disorder. People with bipolar disorder—once known as manic-depressive disease—have episodes of depression. But they also go through periods of unusually high energy or activity. Manic symptoms look like the opposite of depression symptoms: grandiose ideas, unrealistically high self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, thoughts and activity at higher speed, and ramped-up pursuit of pleasure including […]overspending, and risk-taking. Being manic can feel great, but it doesn’t last long, can lead to self-destructive behavior, and is usually followed by a period of depression. Medications for bipolar disorder are different from those given for other depression types, but can be very effective at stabilizing a person’s mood.”
  • Seasonal affective disorder surfaces as days get shorter in the colder months. Your mood change may be driven by changes in your body’s normal daily rhythms, in your eyes’ sensitivity to light, even in how chemical couriers like serotonin and melatonin work. Popular treatments may include light therapy involving daily sessions sitting close to an intense light source, psychotherapy and treatments like ketamine.

Female-specific depression types:

  • Perinatal depression. This type of depression includes major and minor depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or in the first 12 months after delivery (also known as postpartum depression). Perinatal depression affects up to one in seven women who give birth and can have devastating effects on the women, their infants, and their families. Treatment includes counseling and medication.”
  • PMDD or premenstrual dysphoric disorder. This kind of depression is a serious form of premenstrual syndrome, or PMS. Symptoms of PMDD begin shortly following ovulation and as menstruation starts. Your doctor may recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors but be sure to ask about other options in order to make the right decision.

Diagnosis And Treatment

The first step in treating symptoms of depression are recognizing them, followed by a visit to a doctor or clinician specializing in mental health conditions. For diagnosis, you’ll have to undergo a physical evaluation and possibly lab tests to confirm underlying causes. Next up, a psychological evaluation where you’ll discuss thoughts, feeling, behavior, and personal and family history of mental illness. Once you’ve been diagnosed, your doctor can discuss treatment options, including treatments like ketamine.

Final Thoughts

Depression isn’t like a scraped knee or sunburn, it is not easily curable.  But once you recognize the symptoms, work through the causative stressors in your life and commit to treatment as prescribed, you’ve achieved an important milestone – you’re on your way to managing the condition and living a productive life again. 

What Is The Definition of Anxiety?

Anxiety is a big deal, affecting millions of U.S. adults and children. Being a member of this group isn’t a reason to be ashamed; it simply means others experience similar feelings and symptoms, and you’re not alone. It’s a serious mental health disorder that is treatable with therapy or medicine, like ketamine.

Symptoms of anxiety

Is it anxiety? It could be. Most of us know anxiety when we experience it, but casually brush it off knowing it’ll go away eventually. But there are warning signs, tell-tale symptoms of an issue that could have terrible consequences if ignored. If you have constant symptoms like trembling, sweating, fast breathing, trouble concentrating, or think something bad might happen to you, your anxiety could be morphing into something worse.

What is the definition of anxiety?

Occasional anxiety is normal. You may feel anxious when confronted with an issue at home, before making a presentation, or before deciding which car to buy. But anxiety disorders are more than short-term fear or worry. For someone experiencing an anxiety disorder, the feelings don’t go away and can worsen over time. The symptoms can interfere with your daily life, including school, work, and relationships, resulting in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and various phobias.

What are the major anxiety disorders?

If symptoms of anxiety persist and interfere with your life, they may have morphed into one or more anxiety disorders, including:


  • Generalized anxiety disorder, where you have chronic anxiety, exaggerated tension and worry, even without extenuating circumstances.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder accompanied by recurring, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviors (compulsions). Some repetitive behaviors like hand counting, checking, washing, or cleaning are often done with the wish of blocking obsessive thoughts or making them disappear. Doing these so-called “rituals,” however, only gives short-term relief, while not doing them could boost anxiety.
  • Panic disorder is known for repeated and unexpected episodes of intense fear followed by physical symptoms like chest pain, heart palpitations, or stomach problems.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may happen following a terrifying event where physical harm occurred or was threatened. This includes violent personal or witnessed assaults, manmade or natural disasters, or accidents. This may even occur after “less-traumatic” events such as parent’s fighting/divorcing, cyber-bullying or an embarrassing event occuring in public.
  • Agoraphobia is characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in daily life. This disorder can be limited to a single situation, such as a fear of spiders or going out in public.

Risk factors

There are common risk factors to be aware of for anxiety and anxiety disorders, including stress at home, work, and school, and exposure to traumatic events where death was witnessed or threatened. Other factors include personality, inheritance, other mental health disorders, substance abuse, and environmental factors like a dangerous job.

Prevalence of anxiety disorders

Some people who experience anxiety may suffer in silence and shame, but it’s nothing to be embarrassed about. You are not alone. Some anxiety can and does go away on its own, which is why some people don’t think about it often. But anxiety symptoms that don’t go away are the bigger problem, often resulting in a full-blown anxiety disorder with symptoms often treatable with medicine like ketamine and therapy. How prevalent are anxiety disorders?

  • According to the U.S. National Institutes of Mental Health and the National Comorbidity Study Replication, slightly more than 19 percent of U.S. adults experience an anxiety disorder in any given year.
  • Women (24.3 percent) are more affected than men (14.3 percent).
  • Anxiety disorders affect 22.3 percent of adults 18- to 29-years old; 22.7 percent for people 30- to 44-years old; 20.6 percent for those 45- to 59-years old; and about nine percent for people 60-years old and older.


Anxiety or anxiety disorders can only be properly diagnosed through a mental health evaluation, where you then discuss your thoughts, feelings, behavior, and personal and family history of mental illness. Your doctor will compare your symptoms to criteria in the DSM-5 before making a formal diagnosis and treatment recommendation.


Mild symptoms of anxiety, or those which don’t last very long, can often be managed through dietary or lifestyle changes, or through stress-relieving exercises such as yoga, meditation, running, etc. If none of these do the trick and you need further help, your doctor may recommend psychotherapy, hospitalization, or medication. Ketamine, a powerful anesthetic, has therapeutic properties known to soothe mental illness symptoms and chronic pain.

Final thoughts

Research into IV ketamine infusions for the treatment of anxiety is still ongoing, but the current understanding is that ketamine can bind to receptors in the brain and increase the amount of a neurotransmitter, glutamate. This will set off a chain of reactions in the brain and impact emotional regulation.


To put this into layman’s terms, ketamine allows the brain to trigger hormones that create more positive emotions. One added benefit of ketamine infusion is that relief can occur within minutes rather than the weeks or months an antidepressant or therapy may take.


Contact us today to learn more about this innovative new treatment option.

Woman with multiple identities

Does PTSD Cause Dissociation?

If you’ve lived through a traumatic experience, you may suffer symptoms like avoidance or relationship trouble. But symptoms related to consciousness, memory, and self-identity could be warning signs of a subcategory of post-traumatic stress disorder called dissociation. Many people can lessen harmful symptoms with therapies, including medicine or ketamine infusion treatment.


It’s normal to have disturbing memories, feel on edge, or have sleep problems following trauma. Initially, it might be difficult to perform daily chores you’re accustomed to, like a job, attending school, or spending time with family and friends. But most people begin to feel better within weeks or months. For some people, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms may start long after, or they may appear in fits and starts. Anything longer may be signs of PTSD.


Dissociation, a common feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), involves disruptions in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, and perception of the self and the environment. Acute dissociative responses to psychological trauma have been found to predict the development of chronic PTSD.” Furthermore, someone who suffers acute dissociative reactions to trauma also shows a chronic dissociation model as a response to cues of the original trauma and slight stressors that accompany it.


PTSD and dissociation can happen to anyone, regardless of gender, age, or socioeconomic standing. Like other mental health issues, it’s the great equalizer. It can happen in all people, of any ethnicity, nationality, culture, or accumulated wealth. Posttraumatic stress disorder is known to harm about 3.5 percent of U.S. adults annually, and about one in 11 people will be diagnosed with it during their lives. “Women are twice as likely as men to have PTSD.”


If you think you have PTSD, the symptoms are divided into four categories: Intrusive memories, avoidance, negative alterations in mood and thinking, and variations in emotion and physical reactions. Watch for symptoms like:

  • Reliving the trauma like it was occurring again
  • Avoiding anything which reminds you of what happened
  • Hopelessness about future events
  • Memory trouble, like forgetting key points of the traumatic occurrence
  • Being easily frightened or alarmed
  • Always being on the lookout for danger


PTSD doesn’t cause dissociation because it’s a subtype of PTSD. According to a study, there is a significant bond between trauma (like childhood abuse and/or neglect) and dissociative disorders, and the link is critical in both directions. It’s believed that long-term trauma is a cause of dissociative disorders, with detachment happening like a coping strategy that lets you put distance between yourself and a trauma that could otherwise be intolerable.

Part of the key to understanding the relationship between dissociation, PTSD, and trauma is the symptoms and the results of a self-report measure or a semi-structured interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional. In either case, this involves the use of the Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Scale (DSPS), “a 15-item measure that assesses lifetime and past-month (current) dissociative symptoms, including symptoms that define the DSM-5 definition of the dissociative subtype of PTSD. The measure has a branching structure such that individuals are first asked if they have ever (in their lifetime) experienced a given symptom and then asked if that symptom has been present in the past month.”

According to the National Center for PTSD, part of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, if a dissociative symptom has been seen in the last month, the incidence of the symptom is later measured “on a 1-4 scale and the intensity of the symptom is rated on a 1-5 scale. The extent to which a given symptom has occurred exclusively in the context of the use of medications or drugs that made the individual very tired or drowsy is also assessed.”

A doctor or mental health professional may also use questions from the Responses to Script-Driven Imagery Scale during the assessment:

  1. Did the experience seem unreal to you?
  2. Did you have the feeling of being a spectator watching what was going on?
  3. Did you experience a sensation of disconnection from your body?
  4. Did you feel as if you were in a fog?


Many people who experience PTSD, dissociation, and other mental illnesses or chronic pain can benefit from many kinds of therapy, particular medicine, or ketamine treatment. In addition, holistic or alternative treatment may work, including massage therapy, acupuncture, yoga, meditation, exercise, or dietary and other lifestyle changes. Call us today to learn more about the innovative options for treatment we provide.

Illustration of a mental health gauge

How Depressed Am I?

Everybody gets depressed at least once in their life. For most people, the symptoms subside on their own. But for others, they linger and worsen, interfering with daily life until the condition becomes debilitating. If you suffer from depression, read on to learn more about its symptoms and treatment options.

What is depression?

Depression, also known as major depressive disorder or clinical depression, “is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. To be diagnosed with depression, the symptoms must be present for at least two weeks.”


Ignoring symptoms of depression can have serious consequences, sometimes leading to suicide. Many of the symptoms can be treated with therapies like ketamine.

Warning signs

Depression and mental illness have their own warning signs in adolescents and adults, but some are more obvious than others:


  • Excessive worry or fear
  • Sadness
  • Extreme mood changes
  • Easily irritated or angered
  • Trouble perceiving reality
  • Mysterious physical ailments without sign of injury or another cause
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Difficulty with relationships

Key facts about depression

  • Depression affects more than 250 million people globally.
  • Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease.”
  • Women are more at risk than men to suffer mild, moderate, or even severe symptoms of depression.
  • In a 2019 survey, 2.8% of adults had severe depression symptoms, 4.2% suffered from moderate symptoms, and 11.5% experienced mild symptoms in the previous two weeks before the survey.
  • People 18- to 25-years old are at the highest risk for depression.
  • More than 3 million adolescents 12- to 17-years old are depressed in any given year.

How depressed am I?

If you’re suffering from symptoms of depression and don’t know where to turn, consider talking with a doctor or licensed mental health provider. People often brush off the symptoms, thinking their mood swings or emotions result from a bad day at work, school, or a domestic squabble. It’s probably more than that.


Here are some questions to ask yourself, which will help you understand what’s going on and help your doctor or therapist treat your depression.


  • Do I have trouble falling asleep?
  • How well do I sleep during the night?
  • Do I wake up too early or sleep too much?
  • How often do I feel sad?
  • Is my appetite normal?
  • Is my weight okay?
  • Do I have trouble concentrating or making decisions?
  • How do I view myself?
  • Do I think about death or suicide?
  • Am I still interested in hobbies or pastimes?
  • How’s my energy level?
  • Do I feel restless?
  • Do I seem to move or talk in slow motion?

Types of depression

Major types of depression include:

  • Persistent depressive disorder is a depressed mood that lasts for at least two years
  • Postpartum depression primarily affects women after childbirth but also has been observed in spouses and other children
  • Seasonal affective disorder mostly happens during the winter or colder months when there’s less natural sunlight, and people spend more time indoors
  • Bipolar disorder is different from depression, but it’s a kind of mental illness with symptoms of major depression

How to diagnose depression

Your doctor or therapist can diagnose your depression. For diagnosis, your symptoms will be compared to criteria in the DSM-5. You’ll also likely undergo a physical and mental health exam to uncover possible causes for depression and will be asked questions about your personal and family history of mental illness. 

Treatment options

Even the most serious cases of depression can be treated by psychotherapy, medicine, or a combination of two. Your doctor may recommend self-help options like breathing, meditation, and relaxation techniques, depending on your health and other factors. The treatment always depends on the clinical diagnosis and will last several months.

Ketamine and depression

In March 2019, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of ketamine to treat depression in adults. It was the first new medicine approved for depression in more than 30 years and has opened a world of possibilities for people who suffered from treatment-resistant depression – or depression that couldn’t be treated with other medicine or therapy. The medicine has shown great promise. It’s available by prescription and is dispensed through licensed ketamine clinics.

Final thoughts

Ketamine started as a fast-acting anesthetic and pain reliever, an innovative new treatment option. Research in the last two decades has shown that ketamine is a powerful new tool for the treatment of depression.


Ketamine works to stimulate the growth and regrowth of neurotransmitters in the brain, essentially rewriting the parts of the brain causing distress. Up to 70% of patients may be able to find relief from the symptoms of depression after a series of IV ketamine infusions.


Contact us today to learn more about this innovative new treatment option.


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